Assets are more than simply a way to spend money; they are also an investment made in the expectation of making a profit, whether short-term or long-term. The management of a company’s limited resources reveals information about the effectiveness of its asset management. In layman’s terms, a firm is considered to be financially healthy and successful if it is able to manage its assets efficiently by extracting the highest possible returns from them.
As a result, while assessing an investment choice, it is critical to understand how successfully a firm manages and utilizes its assets.
What Exactly is Return on Assets (ROA)
RoA and RoFA finance metrics are accounting ratios that are used to determine a company’s worth by evaluating its efficiency. In layman’s terms, the RoA ratio is used to assess a company’s efficiency in generating profit from its assets. If a company’s assets are not utilized to their maximum capacity, they will not create the required amount of earnings and will provide lesser returns.
A corporation’s assets exist solely to create money and revenue for the company. As a result, the return on assets ratio assists both management and investors in determining how successfully a business can convert its asset investments into profits. RoA may also be thought of as a return on investment because most firms’ assets are their most valuable capital. In such circumstances, the return is frequently quantified in terms of profits.
The higher the RoA of a firm, the better its asset utilization. The return on investment (ROI) of a firm may be compared over time. If the company’s RoFA has increased over time, it is likely that its earnings have increased as well.
Calculating Return on Asset
Return on Fixed Assets is the ratio of net income after taxes to total assets on average.
RoA = Net Income / Average Total Assets
Net Income = Net Income for the same period that assets were acquired.
(Beginning + Ending Assets)/2 = Average Assets
Total Assets on Average
Because a company’s total assets might fluctuate over time due to new purchases of land, machinery, asset sales/purchases, inventory adjustments, or seasonal sales swings, ROA needs an assessment of the company’s average total assets. As a result, it is always preferable to compute the average total assets for the time period under consideration rather than the total assets for a single period. A company’s entire assets may be viewed on its balance sheet.
The handling of assets that are distinct from common assets is a typical question when assessing the company’s total assets. Intangible assets and depreciating assets are examples of these. Intangible assets are not recorded in the books, but they cause a firm to spend expenditures for their purchase and upkeep; hence, this is considered a cost and is reported in the income statement, affecting net income directly. Non-operating assets are reported on the balance sheet and hence have an impact on the company’s average total assets.
The Net Income, sometimes known as “net profit,” can be shown on a company’s profit/loss statement. It is the ROA ratio’s numerator. The Net Income computation takes into account all of the money that comes in and goes out of the firm. It is the amount realized after subtracting all company expenditures in a particular period. Net Income is defined as the amount of total income that remains after accounting for all expenditures for production, overhead, operations, administrations, debt payment, taxes, amortization, depreciation, and one-time expenses for unexpected occurrences such as litigation or major purchases.
Because net income is the numerator in the equation, the greater the net income is in comparison to the average total assets, the higher and better the return on assets for that firm will be. Similarly, a firm with a larger average total asset, which is typical of capital-intensive businesses, will have a lower ROA if it is less than the net income. Most of the time, a lower ROA indicates that the company’s assets are underutilized.
The Importance of Return on Asset
The Return on Assets ratio is a critical accounting statistic for determining a company’s profitability. It is frequently used to analyze a company’s performance through time and compare it to the current situation, or to compare one company’s performance to another of the same size of operations in order to make a better educated decision. When comparing the performance of two distinct firms, it is vital to keep the magnitude of the two businesses and their activities in mind.
Varying industries have different ROAs. A capital-intensive firm with heavy operations and a high value of fixed assets will have a lower ROA because the high asset values will raise the value of the denominator in the ROA formula. If a company’s income is large enough, it might have a greater ratio.
ROAs may also assist in determining if a firm is asset-intensive or asset-light. The lower the ROA, the more capital-intensive the firm. An automotive or airline firm, for example, will have a lower ROA, but a software company or advertising agency will have a greater ROA.